In 1945, Japan managed to bear the unbearable, and surrendered to the USA – thereby World War II came to an end also on the Pacific theatre. Following that, in 1946 the USA established a new Japanese Constitution in which the island state took on to distance itself from the use of military force. Thus, over the Cold War period and also after the collapse of the bipolar world order, the name “Japan” was no longer the equivalent of strict, military-like discipline, nor the fanaticism of the kamikazes. Japan became the land of peace, harmony, sakura blooming and the snow-capped Fuji – and from the end of the 20th century on also the synonym for high-technology and development. However, in 2015, Japan amended its Constitution, and thus the country can now have an army and deploy it also in other countries. What could be behind this step? What is the Japanese constitutional amendment: a logical answer to an altered geopolitical reality, or a first step towards aggressive militarism, bringing an end to an era of peace?